Development of mobile communications
The first ‘mobile’
The former PTT late 1939 the first mobile phone with the type designation DR38, by the Dutch Signal Appliances Factory from Hilversum. In the late forties than the start was made to National Public Network (OLN). Call made according to the simplex method (there can be only one party to speak simultaneously) and there is still operator assistance needed to establish the connection.
ATF (1st generation)
There are several decades passed before there is real mobile telephony. In March 1980, the first real car telephone network, the ATF-1 network in use. The great interest is decided to introduce a second ATF just based on the Scandinavian NMT concept. This network was called the ATF-2 and is just put into operation in January 1985. It will take until the late eighties before the first zaktoestellen appear. Dan is now the ATF-3 network in use. The NMT network is nationwide and will be operational until late 1999.
Between Form: The Kermit
In the nineties there is also briefly worked with DECT technology as semi-mobile network, the CT2 network. This network was known by in May 1992 introduced “Kermit’ devices (later ‘green hopper’) that provides in so-called ‘Green Points’ call could be. There were approximately 5000 of these base stations placed where within a radius of 150 meters mobile outgoing call could not be. the Kermit-holder could not itself by means of a green point to be called, which is a big disadvantage. advantage, however, was that the Green Hopper also in the house, in combination with a base, could be properly used. In 1996, the active sale of the discontinued service until January 1, 1999 the service, which at its peak over 50,000 customers, is put stop. Price and technology are surpassed by the analog-car telephony networks with relatively cheap subscription.
GSM (2nd generation)
Global System for Mobile communications is currently the most widely used (over 500 million subscribers worldwide) mobile communications technology. GSM, in the beginning also called ATF-4, is the successor to the ATF analog networks, which now (since 1999) are phased out. The development of GSM started in early eighties and ten years later, in 1992, the first network in use. The great advantage of GSM is the possibility of roaming between networks. This means that the subscriber remains accessible if it is outside the coverage area of ??the private operator is (and thus in the coverage area of ??another provider, you are traveling abroad). Roaming between networks must, however, agreements were made between the different providers. In the Netherlands currently operate 5 providers of GSM networks, each with their own network. The (national) coverage varies by provider. With the introduction of GSM was also the GSM device commonplace.
Main application of GSM voice, while SMS (Short Message Service) is widely used for short text messages (1 January 2001 as worldwide over 15 billion messages sent per month). For use of the Internet via GSM have recently WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) service was introduced. The data capacity of GSM stands at 9.6 kbps, so WAP can not be compared with what we are accustomed to the Internet via the PC.
The Wireless Application Protocol. Protocol is used on the GSM network for sub-internet applications. WAP users must build connection for each communication session and log into the WAP network. Limited content, late availability of equipment and slow log-in procedures, in combination with too high expectations, provide for the (as yet) failure of this service. The slow (9.6 kbps) connections do not contribute to the rapid acceptance of these services.
GPRS (2.5 generation e)
General Packet Radio Services is a packet-switched data communication service, which is based on GSM technology. Data is available in packets over the same time slots transmitted. Theoretically, up to 8 timeslots (device dependent) are used simultaneously, one also theoretical bandwidth of approximately 100 kbps. In practice, depending on the used (available in the market) devices and network traffic, however, will at most a bandwidth of 28 kbps are achieved. For the record: this is only half the speed that we now have our standard analog telephone line can achieve. Disappointing performance can, and the availability of new technologies is GPRS died a quiet death.
GPRS works on the so-called ‘Always-on’ principle. This means that the mobile data connection always online and therefore no log is available. This is one of the biggest advantages over the current mobile internet with WAP over GSM is offered.
The cost of mobile internet over GPRS, in contrast to GSM where Wappen on airtime is billed based on information sent. Rates for GPRS as currently outlined will have a major impact on the acceptance of this technique. The cost for this service depends on which provider they choose.
GPRS still works in the Netherlands. By the speed UMTS GPRS has been rolled out only a short phase exist as a data transport protocol. Deficit to be overly large investments could be recovered.
UMTS (3rd generation)
The Universal Mobile Telephone System was the successor to slain dyed GSM telephony. UMTS, and GPRS, intended as a mobile data network, through which data packets being sent. UMTS, however, has a higher data capacity than GPRS, in theory 2Mbps. In first intention, however, was sent at 64 kbps. Increasing bandwidth was possible after the number of sites increase. UMTS is a dense cellular network compared with GSM and GPRS.
In Europe, a great risk taken by the sale of licenses by different authorities, which the joint operators has cost approximately 110 billion euros. For these operators, these costs large financial risks with them. It’s never been proved but the financial constraints could be a lack on the development of new techniques and applications. Meanwhile, it also openly questioned whether funds for UMTS have been recouped. For nationwide UMTS coverage at least 5000 local sites are needed. Increasing the available bandwidth requires more sites.
UMTS 4th generation
4G stands for 4th Generation. This is the fourth generation of the specified mobile network, which is offered by many providers since 2013 in the Netherlands. It is the successor to 3G, which for years throughout the Netherlands is available and where to make all providers use. 4G is faster and more stable internet connection over 3G. You also have 4G with better reception in the house. The speed and stability of the network care even for that there is no difference is more noticeable between the 4G network and Wi-Fi networks.
4G+ as an interim step
Since 5G networks are still far away, choosing many operators choose to run on the 4G network. This is known as LTE-Advanced or 4G +. This has a theoretical maximum speed of 225 Mbps; in reality, the speed will be lower. The Dutch operators offer 4G + by combining multiple frequencies 800, 1800 and 2600 GHz. Because the data packets while two or three frequency bands are sent, the speed is also two or three times as high. All Dutch providers with a 4G network already offer 4G + to even latecomer Tele2.
How are things with 5G Internet?
So you can say that most providers offer nationwide LTE coverage in the Netherlands, but often no exact type of coverage with real 4G Internet. The difference is very small. The technology LTE-Advanced 4G belongs to and is an extension of the LTE network that we use now. T-Mobile is one of the providers that really has stepped up its network to LTE-Advanced and becomes just like normal LTE, known as 4G. Until all providers are fully to LTE-Advanced, it is therefore to wait until we receive the latest mobile internet in the Netherlands. With 5G internet you can expect speeds up to ten times faster than we are accustomed of 4G networks. This would mean in theory that 1 GB per second should be no more problem for mobile phones and other mobile devices. In addition, the 5G network will be a lot more stable and more accessible to more people at once. You will therefore at a concert or festival have a much better mobile coverage. In the Netherlands, is currently under construction performed at the 5G network and there are tests, especially in the north of the Netherlands. This is to see how good and stable network is. The pursuit of international parties to 2020 provide as many major cities in Europe, this blazing fast network. Until then we should do it with the “slow” internet that we have delivered on our 4G network.